Cross-cultural adaptation and standardization of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) in 36-60 month-old-children from a Vietnam national survey

Ba Minh Nguyen, Ministry of Education and Training, Vietnam (
Thanh Nam Tran, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam (

Background: Accurate and efficient developmental screening measures are critical for early identification of developmental problems; however, few reliable and valid tests are available in Vietnam as well as other countries in ASEAN. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire, a well-established tool, was chosen for adaptation with young children in Vietnam in 2018.

Aim: This study aimed to translate and validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) in 36-60 month-old-children in Vietnam for the purpose of developmental screening.

Method: The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of 3801 36-60 month-old-children were recruited randomly from eight regions, representing seven economic zones of Vietnam. Item response theory model was used to analyse item difficulty level. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency. Validity was assessed using content validity.

Results: Results show the internal reliability, determined by Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.56 to 0.73 and the inter-rater reliability (parents/teachers) was high (ranged from 0.88 to 0.91). The national norms were established. The cut-off scores of Vietnamese children were comparable with those of the US normative sample, with no significant differences between two data sets.

Conclusions: In general, the findings suggest that the Vietnamese version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) has satisfactory reliability, and validity for screening developmental problems for 36-60 month-old-children in Vietnam.

Implications for children: We love working with you, we are doing our very best to identify any difficulties you may be having, so you have a great time at early education.

Implications for families: We work very hard and are very committed to children having great experiences and outcomes.

Implications for practitioners: The Vietnamese adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) will help you identify children in early education who may be experiencing difficulties.

Funding: UNICEF – Vietnam

Key words: Screening tools; standardization; validity; reliability; Ages and Stages Questionnaire

This presentation relates to the following United Nations Sustainable Development Goals: